Why not use the central console and push updates from there? I update several SAP HANA servers monthly without issues that way. Check the documentation. Much simpler and less hassle at the command line. You do not need local access to the server. If you have a firewall in the way, you need TCP port 22 opened, that's all. (check docs to verify)
I have some other thoughts below. If the info below is confusing, I recommend opening a ticket with Commvault support, and they can help you.
Looking at your local install steps above, how did you acquire the files from the software cache? Are they taken from a windows server (like my setup) or do you have a cache on a Unix server?
If you manually only copy files from the cache to the destination server, the installer will probably not function properly. You might be able to get away with it in unix, but you should create an install package to do that. Have not done that myself.
If you have a software cache **on a unix server**, go to the root of the directory and run the ./cvpkgadd utility to create a unix updater package. I do not have familiarity with that since my backup setup is all windows.
I'm more familiar with this method: go to the Maintenance Advantage site and download the windows-based downloader package on to a windows-based computer. Then I create a Unix update package from that windows installer package, copy the tar file to the destination server and untar it.
Sounds a little strange, but if you go in to the steps from the windows installer package, you will see an option to create or download packages for different unix flavors. From there you should be able to create a package, have the packager 'tar' it up, then transfer it to your destination server.
As I said in the beginning, make your life easier and use the console, or open a ticket for help if my info is confusing. Hope this helps! Stay strong and healthy.